376 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION men, and that having thus seen in a manner with our eyes what we cannot see for ourselves, their conclusions are such as bear on our own circumstances."* Consequently, while paying close attention to the linguistic side of the classics and making them a basis for the study of the general principles of grammar and an aid to the accurate and forceful use of the mother tongue, he was specially careful to connect what was read with the social and political problems of the modern world. With the same end in view he attached great importance to the study of ancient history and geography. There was nothing new about this : it was simply a revival of the Renaissance ideals, which was essential if the classics were to continue a vital element in the education of humanity in an age that had outgrown the Renaissance, So far as there was novelty in his educational views it was in regard to the function of schools such as Rugby in a system of national education. In his opinion, at least three grades of schools were necessary, corresponding broadly to the three main social groups constituting the nation. The elementary schools for the lower classes and the secondary schools for the middle classes he would have under the control of the State, but the endowed schools for the upper classes he would leave free self-governing institutions, each working on its own lines under the general supervision and encouragement of the central educational authority. This idea of self-goverment, applied to the school organization as a unit, and to the school as a community of boys largely regulating their own lives, was the permanent contribution made by him to the educational thought not only of England but of the world. By means of it a place was found for individuality in a school system based on authority and tradition, and presumably, therefore, in any school system. BIBLIOGRAPHY ARNOLD, THOMAS: J. J. Findlay, Arnold of Rugby, Cambridge, 1897; Sir Joshua Fitch, Thomas and Matthew Arnold, London, 1897; A. P. Stanley, IJfe and Correspondence ^twelfth edition), London, 1881. FICHTE, J, G. : Addresses to the German Nation, translated by R. H. Jones and G. H. Turnbull, Liverpool, 1922 ; G. H. Turnbull, The Educational Theory ofFichte, London, 1926. Paul Duproix, Kant et Fichte et le Probleme de VEducation, Paris, 1897. FROEBEL, F.: Autobiography (London, 1886) and Letters on the Kindergarten (London, 1890), translated by E. Michaelis and H. K. Moore ; The Education of Man (New York, 1894), translated by W. N. Hailmann; * Fitch, Thomas and Matthew Arnoldt p. 35.